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12th physics. NCERT notes

Amplitude Modulation

Amplitude Modulation In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the information signal. AM can be represented by expression Let c(t) =...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Modulation and its Necessity

Modulation is the process of variation of some characteristics of a carrier wave in accordance with the instantaneous value of a modulating signal. Types of...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

Propagation of electromagnetic waves Ground (surface) wave propagation: Ground or surface waves are the radio waves which travel along the surface of the earth as shown...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Bandwidth of Signals

The bandwidth of a signal is defined as the difference between the upper and lower frequencies of signal. In a communication system, the message...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Elements of Communication System

Each and every communication system has 3 essential elements and they are Transmitter Communication Channel Receiver In a communication system, the transmitter is located at...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Logic Gates

Logic gates A gate is a digital circuit that follows curtain logical relationship between the input and output voltages. Therefore, they are generally known as...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Analog signal and Digital signals

Digital Electronics involves circuits and systems in which there are only two possible states which are represented by voltage levels. Other circuit conditions such...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Transistor as an Amplifier

Transistor as an Amplifier Amplification is the process of linearly increasing the amplitude of an electrical signal. A transistor can act as an amplifier directly...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Transistor Action or Working of Transistor

A brief description of the three segments of a transistor is given below: Emitter: This is the segment on one side of the transistor....
12th physics. NCERT notes

Junction Transistor

Junction transistor A junction transistor is a solid-state device. It consists of silicon or germanium crystal containing two PN junctions. The two PN junctions are...