Home Chemistry Isolation of Elements

Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Refining

Refining The process of purifying the crude metals is called refining. Some methods of refining are as follow: Distillation: This is very useful for low...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Oxidation Reduction

Oxidation-Reduction Besides reduction, some extraction is based on oxidation particularly for non-metal. For extraction of chlorine from brine.
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Extraction of Aluminum

Extraction of Aluminum: Alumina Al2O3 is mixed with Na3AlF6 or CaF2 which lowers the melting point of the mixture and brings conductivity. Fused mixture is...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide

Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide Copper is extracted mainly from copper pyrites (CuFeS2). The extraction involve the following steps given in flow sheet.
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide

Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide The reduction of zinc oxide is done using coke. The temperature, in this case, is higher than that in...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Extraction of iron from its oxides

Extraction of iron from its oxides Oxide ores of iron, after concentration through calcination/roasting (to remove water, to decompose carbonates and to oxidise sulphides) are...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy

Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy: For any process, Gibbs free energy change (∆G) is given by When ∆H is the enthalpy change and ∆S is the entropy...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore

Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore: The concentrated ore must be converted into a form which is suitable for reduction. Usually the sulphide ore...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Concentration of Ores

Concentration of Ores Removal of the unwanted materials (e.g., sand, clays, etc.) from the ore is known as concentration, dressing or benefaction. It involves several...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Isolation of Elements – General Terms

Minerals: These are naturally occurring chemical substances in the in the earth crust obtainable by mining. Ores: Only a few minerals are used as sources of that...