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chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Polyhalogen Compounds

Polyhalogen Compounds Carbon compounds containing more than one halogen atom are known as polyhalogen compounds. For example: CFCl3, CH2Cl2 etc. Some important polyhalogen compounds are described...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Chemical Reactions of Halides

Chemical Reactions of Halides The reaction of haloalkanes: The reactions of haloalkanes may be divided into the following categories: Nucleophilic substitution: A nucleophile attacks...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Physical Properties of Halides

Physical Properties of Halides Alkyl halides are colourless when pure. However, bromides and iodides develop colour when exposed to light. Many volatile halogen compounds...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes From Alcohols The hydroxyl group of an alcohol is replaced by halogen on reaction with concentrated halogen acids, phosphorus...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Nature of C-X Bond

Nature of C-X Bond X is more electronegative than carbon. So, the C-X bond is polarized with C having a partial positive charge and X...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Nomenclature of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

The common names of alkyl halides are derived by naming the alkyl group followed by the halide. Alkyl halides are named as halo-substituted hydrocarbons...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Introduction & Classification of Haloalkanes

In aliphatic or aromatic compounds, the replacement of hydrogen atom(s) by halogen atom(s) results in the formation of alkyl halide (haloalkane) and aryl halide...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Importance and Application of Coordination Compounds

Importance and Application of Coordination Compounds: EDTA is used in the estimation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in hardwater.  The Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions form...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Metal Carbonyls

Metal Carbonyls The homoleptic complexes in which carbon monoxide (CO) acts as the ligand are called metal carbonyls. For example: Ni(CO)4 Structure of some important metal carbonyls...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Stability and Colors in coordination compounds

The stability of the coordination compound depends on Nature of the ligand: Chelating ligands form strong and more stable complexes than the monodentate ligands. The π-...