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chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Physical & Chemical Properties and Uses of Carboxylic acids

Physical Properties of Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids are higher boiling liquids than aldehydes, ketones and even alcohols of comparable molecular masses. Aliphatic carboxylic acids upto...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

Methods of preparation of Carboxylic Acids Preparation of Carboxylic Acids From primary alcohols and aldehydes Carboxylic acids are also prepared from aldehydes by the use of...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Carboxylic Acids – Nomenclature and Structure

Carboxylic Acids Carbon compounds containing a carboxyl functional group, –COOH are called carboxylic acids. The carboxyl group, consists of a carbonyl group attached to a...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Physical & Chemical Properties and Use of Aldehydes and Ketones

Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones The intermolecular forces of attraction in aldehydes and ketones are dipole-dipole interactions. These are stronger than van der...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones

Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketons By oxidation of alcohols: Aldehydes and ketones are generally prepared by oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, respectively. By dehydrogenation of alcohols: This...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Aldehydes & Ketones- Nomenclature and Structure

Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are the simplest and most important carbonyl compounds. There are two systems of nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones. Aldehydes: Common names of...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Cleansing Agents

Two types of detergents are used as cleansing agents. These are soaps and synthetic detergents. Soap Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Chemicals in Food

Chemicals are added to food for their preservation enhancing their appeal, and adding nutritive value in them. Main categories of food additives are as follows: ...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs Analgesics: These are the drugs used to reduce or abolish pain without causing the loss of consciousness, paralysis and...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Drugs and Medicines

A drug, also called medicine, is a chemical substance used to cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease. Chemotherapy, use of the chemical substance for...