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Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.

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Magnetic Properties of Solid

Magnetic Properties of Solid Electrons are charged particles and it generates a magnetic field around itself. The magnetic field arises due to the spinning of...
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Electrical Properties of Solid

Solids can be classified into three types on the basis of their conductivities. Conductors: The solids with conductivities ranging between 104 to 107 ohm–1m–1 are called...
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Non-Stoichiometric Defects and Metal Deficiency Defect

Non-Stoichiometric Defects A large number of non-stoichiometric inorganic solids are known which contain the constituent elements in non-stoichiometric ratio due to defects in their crystal...
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Impurity Defects

Impurity Defects If molten NaCl containing a little amount of SrCl2 is crystallized, some of the sites of Na+ ions are occupied by Sr2+ (Fig.). Each...
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Stoichiometric Defects

Stoichiometric Defects These are the point defects that do not disturb the stoichiometry of the solid. They are also called intrinsic or thermodynamic defects. Basically...
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Imperfection in Solids

Single crystals are formed when the process of crystallization occurs at extremely slow rate. Even these crystals are not free of defects. The defects...
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Packing efficiency in Body-centred cubic structures

Now consider the unit cell of body-centred cubic in which sphere ABCDEFGH are occupied at corner. And sphere c is placed at body-centre of...
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Packing Efficiency

Packing efficiency is defined as the percentage of total space filled by the constituent particles in a crystal. Packing efficiency in hcp and ccp structures: Let...
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Close Packed Structures

Close-Packed Structures As we the constituent particles in solid are in form of a sphere. The spheres in solid are arranged in the different way...
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Primitive unit cell

Primitive unit cell: In a Primitive unit cell, atoms are present at the corner only. An atom is shared by 8 unit cell. Hence the...