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Wave Optics

Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a
plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s
principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of
central maximum, resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation,
plane polarised light, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

12th physics. NCERT notes

Polarization of Light

Polarization of light Light propagates as transverse EM waves. The magnitude of electric field is much larger as compared to magnitude of magnetic field. We...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Diffraction of Light

Diffraction is the slight bending of light as it passes around the edges of an object. The amount of bending depends on the relative...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Interference of Light Waves

Interference of Light Waves When two light waves of same frequency travel simultaneously in the same direction then, due to their superposition, the resultant intensity...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Coherent and Incoherent Waves

Coherent Waves: Coherence is attained when there is a constant phase difference in two or more waves over time. Two waves are said to be in...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Young’s Double Slit Experiment (YDSE)

Young’s Double Slit Experiment (YDSE) Monochromatic light (single wavelength) falls on two narrow slits S1 and S2 which are very close together acts as two...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Reflection and Refraction of Light Waves: Explanation using Huygens Principle

Reflection: Each point on a plane wavefront can be considered to be a circular ripple. The time taken for the ripple at A to get...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Huygens Principle

In 1678, Huygens proposed the waves theory of light. According to Huygens, light travels in the form of waves. These waves after emerging from...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Wave Optics

Wave optics is the study of the wave nature of light. Interference and diffraction are two main phenomena giving convincing evidence that light is...