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Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance. Proteins - Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure. Vitamins - Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

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Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are chain like polymers of thousands of nucleotide units, hence they are also called polynucleotides. These are mainly of two types, the...
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Vitamins

Vitamins Vitamins are a group of organic compounds which are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in very small amounts for...
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Enzymes

Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts. Chemically all enzymes are globular proteins. Being proteins, they have colloidal nature and get inactivated during reactions and have...
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Proteins

Proteins The word protein is derived from Greek word, “proteios” which means primary or of prime importance. All proteins are polymers of -amino acids. Amino Acids The...
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Starch, Cellulose & Glycogen

Polysaccharides Polysaccharides contain a large number of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They mainly act as the food storage or structural materials. Starch Main...
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Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose

Disaccharides: The two monosaccharides are joined together by an oxide linkage formed by the loss of a water molecule. Such a linkage between two monosaccharide...
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Fructose (Ketohexose)

Fructose (Ketohexose) Fructose is an important ketohexose. It is obtained along with glucose by the hydrolysis of disaccharide, sucrose. Fructose also has the molecular formula C6H12O6. The...
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Glucose

Glucose is a monosaccharide’s with molecular formula C6H12O6. It is present in sweet fruits and in honey. Preparation of Glucose: #1 Preparation of Glucose From sucrose, C12H22O11: #2 Preparation of Glucose From starch C6H10O5: Structure...
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Biomolecules and Carbohydrates

Biomolecules Biomolecules are the organic molecules that are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of living organisms. Thus, they build up the living system...