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Alcohols Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Physical & Chemical Properties of ethers:

Physical Properties of ethers: Miscibility: Miscibility of ethers with water resembles those of alcohols of the same molecular mass. This is due to the fact that...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Ethers and Preparation of Ethers

Ethers Ethers are classified as simple or symmetrical, if the alkyl or aryl groups attached to the oxygen atom are the same, and mixed or...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Physical & Chemical properties of Phenols

Physical properties of Phenols Phenols are colourless liquids or crystalline solids but become coloured due to slow oxidation with air. Due to the presence...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Preparation of phenol

General methods of preparation of phenols are described below: Preparation of phenol From benzene sulphonic acid: Preparation of phenol From haloarenes: Preparation of phenol From diazonium salt: Commercial...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Structure of phenol

Structure of phenol In phenols, the –OH group is attached to sp2 hybridised carbon of an aromatic ring. The C–O bond length (136 pm) in...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Nomenclature of Phenols

Common naming system: The simplest hydroxy derivative of benzene is a phenol. Phenol is the common name as well as an accepted IUPAC name...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Phenols & Classification Of Phenols

Phenols Phenols are the compounds formed when a hydrogen atom in an aromatic ring, is replaced by a hydroxyl group (-OH group). For example: Classification Of...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Methanol and Ethanol

Two commercially important alcohols are methanol and ethanol. Methanol, CH3OH Preparation of Methanol: Methanol is mainly produced by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide at high pressure and...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Physical & Chemical Properties of Alcohols

Physical properties of alcohols Lower alcohols are liquid at room temperature while higher ones are solid. The boiling point of alcohols is higher than...
chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Preparation of Alcohols

General methods of preparation of alcohols are described below: Preparation of Alcohols From alkenes: By acid catalysed hydration of alkenes in accordance with the Markownikoffs rule. ...