chemistry 12th class cbse notes

General methods of preparation of alcohols are described below:

Preparation of Alcohols

Preparation of Alcohols From alkenes:

  • By acid catalysed hydration of alkenes in accordance with the Markownikoffs rule.

Markownikoffs rule

  • By hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes in accordance with the anti-Markownikoffs rule.

anti-Markownikoffs rule

Preparation of Alcohols From carbonyl compounds:

  • By catalytic hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones.

Preparation of Alcohols From carbonyl compounds:

  • By catalytic reduction of carboxylic acids and esters.

By catalytic reduction of carboxylic acids and esters

Preparation of Alcohols Form Grignard reagent, RMgX:

It gives R group as a nucleophile to attack at the partially positive carbon atom of carbonyl (–C=O) group.

Preparation of Alcohols Form Grignard reagent, RMgX

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