chemistry 12th class cbse notes

IUPAC naming system:

  • Select the longest possible chain that contains the α-carbon

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • Number the carbon atoms in the chain in such a way that α-carbon gets the minimum number

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • Then identify the hydrocarbon group and name it as per the IUPAC naming system.

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • Now replace the ‘e’ in the end of the parent hydrocarbon name by ‘ol’.

Nomenclature of Alcohols

Common naming system:

  • The common name of alcohol is alkyl alcohol.
  • Depending upon the upon the structure of the alkyl group, prefix n, iso, sec, tert or neo is added to the common name.
  • ‘n’ is added when α-carbon and other carbon atoms make a straight chain. For example:

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • ‘Iso’ is added when the ─OH group is attached to

Nomenclature of Alcohols

For example:

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • ‘sec’ is added when the α-carbon is attached to two other carbon atoms. For example:

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • ‘tert’ is added when the α-carbon is attached to three other carbon atoms. For example:

Nomenclature of Alcohols

  • ‘Neo’ is used when quaternary carbon is present. For example:

Nomenclature of Alcohols

 

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