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Electronic Devices

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

12th physics. NCERT notes

Logic Gates

Logic gates A gate is a digital circuit that follows curtain logical relationship between the input and output voltages. Therefore, they are generally known as...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Analog signal and Digital signals

Digital Electronics involves circuits and systems in which there are only two possible states which are represented by voltage levels. Other circuit conditions such...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Transistor as an Amplifier

Transistor as an Amplifier Amplification is the process of linearly increasing the amplitude of an electrical signal. A transistor can act as an amplifier directly...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Transistor Action or Working of Transistor

A brief description of the three segments of a transistor is given below: Emitter: This is the segment on one side...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Junction Transistor

Junction transistor A junction transistor is a solid-state device. It consists of silicon or germanium crystal containing two PN junctions. The two PN junctions are...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Zener Diode

Zener diode Zener diode is a reverse biased heavily doped semiconductor (silicon or germanium) PN junction diode, which is operated exclusively in the breakdown region. The...
12th physics. NCERT notes


Photodiode A photodiode is again a special purpose p-n junction diode fabricated with a transparent window to allow light to fall...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Solar Cell

Solar cell A solar cell is basically a p-n junction which generates emf when solar radiation falls on the p-n junction. It works on the same...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

Light Emitting Diode (LED) A light emitting diode (LED) is a forward biased PN junction diode, which emits visible light when energized. When a junction diode...
12th physics. NCERT notes

PN Junction Diode as a rectifier

Junction Diode as a rectifier The process in which alternating voltage or alternating current is converted into a direct voltage or direct current is known...