Electronic Devices

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

12th physics. NCERT notes

Bias Characteristics of PN Junction Diode

Forwarding Bias Characteristics of PN Junction Diode The circuit for the study of forwarding bias characteristics of PN junction diode is shown in Fig a....
12th physics. NCERT notes

PN Junction diode

PN Junction diode: If one side of a single crystal of pure semiconductor (Ge or Si) is doped with acceptor impurity atoms and the other...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Extrinsic Semiconductor

An extrinsic semiconductor is one in which an impurity with a valency higher or lower than the valency of the pure semiconductor is added,...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Intrinsic Semiconductor

A semiconductor which is pure and contains no impurity is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of free electrons...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Definition: Insulators, Semiconductors & Conductors

Insulators: In an insulator, the forbidden energy gap is very large. In general, the forbidden energy gap is more than 3eV and almost no electrons...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Energy bands in conductors

The lower completely filled band is called valence band and the upper empty band is called conduction band. The gap between the top of...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Energy band in solids

In solids, the atoms are arranged in a systematic space lattice and each atom is influenced by neighbouring atoms. The closeness of atoms results...
12th physics. NCERT notes

Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors

On the basis of conductivity: On the basis of the relative values of electrical conductivity (σ) or resistivity (ρ = 1/σ), the solids are...