chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Magnetic Properties of Solid

Electrons are charged particles and it generates a magnetic field around itself. The magnetic field arises due to the spinning of electron at its own axis and movement of atomic orbital around nucleus.

Classification of magnetic properties:

Classification of magnetic properties

Paramagnetism:

  • Weakly attracted by magnetic fields.
  • Alignment of magnetic dipole in the same direction of magnetic field
  • Loose magnetism in absence of magnetic field
  • They have unpaired electrons
  • Example: Cu2+, Fe3+

Diamagnetism:

  • Weakly repelled by magnetic fields
  • Alignment of magnetic dipole in the opposite direction of magnetic field
  • They have all the electrons paired
  • Example: H2O, NaCl

Ferromagnetism:

  • Strongly attracted by magnetic fields
  • Permanently magnetized
  • Example: Fe, Co, Ni etc.

Anti-Ferromagnetisms:

  • Alignment of magnetic domains(group of metal ions) in the opposite direction of magnetic field
  • Strongly repelled by magnetic fields
  • Example: MnO

Ferrimagnetisms:

  • Weakly attracted by magnetic fields
  • Alignment of magnetic domains (group of metal ions) in the parallel and anti-parallel direction with direction of magnetic field and unequal in number.
  • Loss magnetic moment on heating.
  • Example: Fe3O4 (magnetite)

Ferrimagnetisms

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