Carboxylic Acids – Nomenclature and Structure

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chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Carboxylic Acids

Carbon compounds containing a carboxyl functional group, –COOH are called carboxylic acids. The carboxyl group, consists of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group, hence its name carboxyl.

Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids

IUPAC name of Carboxylic Acids:

In the IUPAC system, aliphatic carboxylic acids are named by replacing the ending –e in the name of the corresponding alkane with – oic acid.

The common name of Carboxylic Acids:

The common names end with the suffix –ic acid and have been derived from Latin or Greek names of their natural sources. For example: formic acid (HCOOH)

Structure of Carboxylic Acids

In carboxylic acids, the bonds to the carboxyl carbon lie in one plane and are separated by about 120°. The carboxylic carbon is less electrophilic than carbonyl carbon because of the possible resonance structure shown below:

Structure of Carboxylic Acids

 

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