Carbon compounds containing a carboxyl functional group, –COOH are called carboxylic acids. The carboxyl group, consists of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group, hence its name carboxyl.
Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
IUPAC name of Carboxylic Acids:
In the IUPAC system, aliphatic carboxylic acids are named by replacing the ending –e in the name of the corresponding alkane with – oic acid.
The common name of Carboxylic Acids:
The common names end with the suffix –ic acid and have been derived from Latin or Greek names of their natural sources. For example: formic acid (HCOOH)
Structure of Carboxylic Acids
In carboxylic acids, the bonds to the carboxyl carbon lie in one plane and are separated by about 120°. The carboxylic carbon is less electrophilic than carbonyl carbon because of the possible resonance structure shown below:
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