chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy:

For any process, Gibbs free energy change (∆G) is given by

Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy

When ∆H is the enthalpy change and ∆S is the entropy change and T is the absolute change for any reaction

Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy

Where, k is the equilibrium constant of the reactant – product system at the temperature T, A negative ∆G implies a +ve K in equation and this can happen only when reaction proceeds towards product.

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