Propositions

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english grammer for CBSE Students
  • A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence.
  • Prepositions can be tricky for English learners. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a preposition. In the beginning stage of learning the language, you should try to identify a preposition when reading or listening in English and recognize its usage.

Example:

  • to the office
  • at the desk
  • on the table
  • in an hour
  • about myself

A preposition is used to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object.

Here are a few common prepositions and examples.

On

Used to express a surface of something:

Example:

  • I put an egg on the kitchen table.
  • The paper is on my desk.

Used to specify days and dates:

Example:

  • The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays.
  • I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988.

Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer:

Example:

  • He is on the phone right now.
  • She has been on the computer since this morning.
  • My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.

Used to indicate a part of the body:

Example:

  • The stick hit me on my shoulder.
  • He kissed me on my cheek.
  • I wear a ring on my finger.

Used to indicate the state of something:

Example:

  • Everything in this store is on sale.
  • The building is on fire.

At

Used to point out specific time:

Example:

  • I will meet you at 12 p.m.
  • The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m.

Used to indicate a place:

Example:

  • There is a party at the club house.
  • There were hundreds of people at the park.
  • We saw a baseball game at the stadium.

Used to indicate an email address:

Example:

  • Please email me at abc@defg.com.

Used to indicate an activity:

Example:

  • He laughed at my acting.
  • I am good at drawing a portrait.

In

Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year:

Example:

  • She always reads newspapers in the morning.
  • In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks.
  • The new semester will start in March.

Used to indicate a location or place:

Example:

  • She looked me directly in the eyes.
  • I am currently staying in a hotel.
  • My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California.

Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:

Example:

  • This painting is mostly in blue.
  • The students stood in a circle.
  • This jacket comes in four different sizes.

Used to express while doing something:

Example:

  • In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.
  • A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product.

Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling:

  • I believe in the next life.
  • We are not interested in gambling.

Since

from a certain point of time (past till now)

Example:

  • since 1980
  • since 2 months

for

over a certain period of time (past till now)

Example:

  • for 2 years
  • for 2 months

ago

a certain time in the past

Example:

  • 2 years ago
  • 2 months ago

before

earlier than a certain point of time

Example:

  • before 2004
  • before my exam

to / till / until

marking the beginning and end of a period of time

Example:

  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • from 2015 to/till 2018

till / until

in the sense of how long something is going to last

Example: He is on holiday until Friday.

by

in the sense of at the latest

up to a certain time

Example:

  • I will be back by 6 o’clock.
  • By 11 o’clock, I had read five pages.

by, next to, beside

left or right of somebody or something

Example: Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

under

on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else

Example: the bag is under the table

below

lower than something else but above ground

Example: the fish are below the surface

over

covered by something else

meaning more than

getting to the other side (also across)

Example:

  • overcoming an obstacle
  • put a jacket over your shirt
  • over 16 years of age
  • walk over the bridge
  • climb over the wall

above

higher than something else, but not directly over it

Example: a path above the lake

across

getting to the other side (also over)

getting to the other side

Example:

  • walk across the bridge
  • swim across the lake

through

something with limits on top, bottom and the sides

Example: drive through the tunnel

into

enter a room / a building

Example: go into the kitchen / the house

towards

movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)

Example: go 5 steps towards the house

onto

movement to the top of something

Example: jump onto the table

from

in the sense of where from

 

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