An acid is a substance that donates hydrogen (H+) ions. When an acid is dissolved in water, the balance between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is shifted. Now there are more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions in the solution. This kind of solution is an acidic solution. Acids are sour in taste.
An acid is known as a ‘proton donor‘.
Examples of Acid:
- Sulfuric acid is used in the manufacture of many car batteries. It is also known as ‘Oil of Vitriol’. The chemical formula of Sulfuric acid is H2SO4.
- Carbonic acid is responsible for the ‘fizz’ in soft drinks. The carbonic acid decomposes into Carbon dioxide bubbles. The chemical formula of Carbonic acid is H2CO3.
- Vinegar is very dilute acetic acid. The vinegar used in cooking contains approximately 4% of acetic acid. The chemical formula of acetic acid is CH3COOH.
A base is a substance that accepts hydrogen(OH−) ions. When a base is dissolved in water, the balance between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions shifts the opposite way. Because the base “soaks up” hydrogen ions, the result is a solution with more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions. This kind of solution is an alkaline solution.
Bases are bitter in taste and soapy to touch.
Examples of Base:
- Antacids help to neutralize the acidity (of hydrochloric acid) in the stomach.
- Sodium hydroxide is also known as ‘Caustic Soda‘. Its chemical formula is NaOH.
- Potassium hydroxide is also known as ‘Caustic Potash‘. It is used in the manufacture of alkaline batteries. Its chemical formula is KOH.
A salt is defined as a compound formed by the complete or incomplete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a basic radical.
A normal salt is formed by the complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a basic radical whereas an acid salt is formed by the incomplete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a basic radical.
Examples Of Salts:
- Sodium carbonate is used in the manufacture of detergents and glass.
- Ammonium nitrate is used in the manufacture of fertilizers.
- Normal salt(NaCl) use as food ingredients.
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