chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Metal Carbonyls

The homoleptic complexes in which carbon monoxide (CO) acts as the ligand are called metal carbonyls.
For example: Ni(CO)4

Structure of some important metal carbonyls are:

Structure of some important metal carbonyls
Structure of some important metal carbonyls

Bonding in metal carbonyls

  • The metal-carbon bond in metal carbonyls possess both s and p character. CO as a ligand binds itself to metal atoms through the carbon atom to form the metal-carbon (M-C) bond. It is a weak donor.
  • The M–C σ bond is formed by the donation of lone pair of electrons on the carbonyl carbon into a vacant orbital of the metal.
  • The M–C π bond is formed by the donation of a pair of electrons from a filled d orbital of metal into the vacant antibonding π* orbital of carbon monoxide. This characteristic property of back bonding which stabilises the metalligand interaction is termed as synergic effect.

Bonding in metal carbonyls

Properties of metal carbonyls

  • They are generally solids at room temperature and pressure except Ni(CO)4 and Fe (CO)5.
  • Mononuclear carbonyls are volatile and toxic.
  • Mononuclear carbonyls are either colourless or light coloured.

Stability of Coordination Compounds

The stability of a complex in solution refers to the degree of association between the two-species involved in the state of equilibrium. The magnitude of the (stability or formation) equilibrium constant for the association, quantitatively expresses the stability.


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