chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Negative and Positive Oxidation state:

  • The elements of Group 16 exhibit a number of oxidation states (Above Table).
  • The stability of -2 oxidation state decreases down the group.
  • Polonium hardly shows –2 oxidation state.
  • Since electronegativity of oxygen is very high, it shows only negative oxidation state as –2 except in the case of OF2 where its oxidation state is + 2.
  • Other elements of the group exhibit + 2, + 4, + 6 oxidation states but + 4 and + 6 are more common. Sulphur, selenium and tellurium usually show + 4 oxidation state in their compounds with oxygen and + 6 with fluorine.


  • The stability of + 6 oxidation state decreases down the group and stability of + 4 oxidation state increase (inert pair effect).
  • Bonding in +4 and +6 oxidation states are primarily covalent.

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