chemistry 12th class cbse notes

Three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. Amongst them, liquid and gases are called fluids because of their ability to flow. But solid cannot flow. The reason for that is particles in solid are not free to move in available space. There is a strong intermolecular force of attraction in between the particles in solid. The constituents particles in solid have fixed position and can only oscillate about their mean position.  This gives the rigidity to the solid and hence a fixed shape also. In brief, we can say that:

“Solid state of matter possesses fixed mass, volume, shape and rigidity “.

Solids are classified on the basis of the arrangement of constituent particles. Due to their specific arrangements, it shows a wide range of properties and hence varied applications like as superconductors, magnetic materials, polymers etc.

General Characteristics of Solid State:

  • Fixed mass, volume and shape
  • Strong intermolecular force of attraction
  • Least intermolecular space
  • Fixed position of constituent particles
  • Incompressible and rigid


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