• Water is a basic necessity for all terrestrial forms of life.
  • Irrigation methods like dams, tanks and canals have been used in various part of India.


Dam is a structure made on water resource, like river, to preserve a large quantity of water. Dams are generally use for Electricity production, Canal system.

Advantages of Dams

Ensures adequate water for irrigation (sufficient to satisfy need). Generate electricity. Continuous supply of water in regions.

Disadvantages of Dams

  • No equitable distribution of water.
  • Large no. of people displaced without compensation.
  • Involves huge amount of Public money without giving proper benefits.
  • Causes deforestation and loss of biological diversity

Water Harvesting

Collection of rain water and its utilization for various purposes.

Advantages of storing water in the ground

  • It does not evaporate.
  • It spreads out to recharge wells.
  • It provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area
  • It does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
  • It is protected from contamination by human and animal waste.

Various ancient methods of water harvesting

  • Khadin, tanks, nadis: Rajasthan
  • Bandharas, tals: Maharasthra
  • Bundhis: Madhya Pradesh and U.P.
  • Pynes, ahars: Bihar
  • Kulhs: Himachal Pradesh
  • Ponds: Jammu Region
  • Eris (tanks): Tamilnadu
  • Bawlis – Old method of water harvesting in Delhi and nearby region.


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