chemistry 12th class cbse notes


Ammonia molecule is trigonal pyramidal with the nitrogen atom at the apex. It has 3 bond pairs and 1 lone pair. N is sp3 hybridized.


Ammonia is highly soluble in water and is weakly basic.


Preparation of Ammonia:

Ammonia (NH3) is manufactured on the commercial scale by Haber’s process.

preparation of Ammonia

  • Pressure ‒ 200 × 105 Pa
  • Temperature ‒ 773 K
  • Catalyst ‒ Iron oxide with small amounts of K2O and Al2O3. In the laboratory, ammonia is prepared by reacting NH4Cl with NaOH.

preparation of Ammonia

Properties of Ammonia:

Due to the presence of the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atoms, NH3 is a Lewis base. It can form a coordinate covalent bond with the transition metal ion and form complexes, e.g.


Aqueous NH3 is also used in the precipitation of metal ions, e.g.


Uses of Ammonia:

  • It is used as a refrigerant.
  • It is used in the manufacture of nitric acid.
  • It is used in the production of nitrogenous fertilizers.

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