Home Chemistry Thermodynamics


Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics –Brief introduction.

11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Second & Third Law of Thermodynamics & Gibb’s Free Energy

Second Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of the universe is always increasing in the course of every spontaneous or natural change. (All spontaneous processes or natural...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Born-Haber Cycle, Spontaneous Process & Entropy (S)

Born-Haber Cycle The entire thermodynamics process of formation of an ionic crystal lattice is called Born Haber cycle. An ionic compound is formed from its...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Enthalpies for Different types of Reactions

Standard enthalpy of combustion (symbol: ∆c H⊖) It is the Enthalpy change taking place when one mole of a compound undergoes complete combustion in the...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Thermochemical Equation

A balanced chemical equation together with the value of ∆rH and the physical state of reactants and products is known as thermochemical equation. Conventions regarding...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Enthalpy Changes During Phase Transformation

Enthalpy of fusion: Enthalpy of fusion is the heat energy or change in enthalpy when one mole of a solid at its melting point is...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Heat Capacity

Heat Capacity of a system is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a system by 1oC. where, coefficient C...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Enthalpy (H)

Enthalpy (H) It is defined as total heat content of the system. it is equal to the sum of internal energy and pressure-volume work. Mathematically, H =...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

First law of thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of Energy)

Law of Conservation of Energy It states that, enegy can neither be created nor be destroyed. The energy of an isolated system is constant. ∆U =...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Thermodynamics Properties

Intensive Properties: Properties of the system which depend only on the nature of matter but not on the quantity of matter are called...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Thermodynamics: Introduction

It is the study of the flow of energy. It encompasses the study of the flow of heat as well as mass. Thermodynamics terminology System: The...