Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

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11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Trivial System

It is the oldest system in which names are derived from source or some property. These are mainly derived from Latin or Greek names e.g., acetic acid (acetum = vinegar), oxalic acid (oxalic), malic acid (Pyrus malus), citric acid (citric acid).

IUPAC System

Acc. To IUPAC system, the name of an organic compound contains three parts: (i) Word root, (ii) Suffix, (iii) Prefix.

Word root:

Word root represents the number of carbon atoms present in the principal chain, which is the longest possible chain of carbon atoms.

IUPAC System

Suffix:

Suffix are of two types, primary suffix, secondary suffix.

  • Primary Suffix: It indicates the type of bond in the carbon atoms.

Primary Suffix

  • Secondary Suffix: Secondary suffix is used to represent the functional group.

Prefix:

Prefix is a part of IUPAC name which appears before the word root. Prefix are of two types:

  • Primary prefix: For example, primary prefix cyclo is used to differentiate cyclic compounds.

Primary prefix

  • Secondary prefix: Some functional groups are considered as substituents and denoted by secondary prefixes.

For example:

Secondary prefix

 

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