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Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), , buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Buffer Solutions & Solubility Products

Buffer Solutions The solutions which resist change in pH on dilution or with the addition of small amounts of acid or alkali, are called Buffer...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Common Ion Effect & Hydrolysis of Salts

Common Ion Effect If in an aqueous solution of a weak electrolyte, a strong electrolyte is added having an ion common with the weak electrolyte,...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Different concepts for Acid & Bases

Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids: According to Arrhenius theory, acids are substances that dissociates in water to give hydrogen ions H+(aq). Arrhenius Bases: Bases are...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Ionic Equilibrium

Ionic equilibrium is the study of equilibrium in the reactions where formation of ions take place in aqueous solution. Electrolytes: Substances which conduct electricity in their...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Le Chatelier’s principle

It states that a change in any of the factors that determine the equilibrium conditions of a system will cause the system to change...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Law of Chemical Equilibrium (Law of Mass Action)

At a constant temperature, the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the molar concentrations of the reactants each...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Equilibrium state

When rate of formation of a product in a process is in competition with rate of formation of reactants, the state is then named...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Chemical Processes & Reversible Reaction

Equilibrium in Physical Processes Physical process involves such changes, which only affects the physical properties of the substance undergoing changes but have no effect on...
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