11th Chemistry NCERT notes
  • Alkenes are characterized by the presence of a double bond between two carbon atoms.
  • Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n.
  • C-C bond hybridization 1.34 Ao
  • Sp2 hybridization
  • When we treated Alkene with chlorine, oily products are obtained. So, Alkenes are also known as Olefins. (Greek olefiant meaning oil forming).
  • Show chain, positional and geometrical isomerism.

Structure of double bond (ethene)

Structure of double bond (ethene)

Fig. Orbital picture of ethene showing formation of (a) π-bond, (b) π-cloud and (c) bond angles
and bond length

Methods of preparation

Methods of preparation

Preparation of Alkene from Alkynes

  • On partial reduction of alkyne with calculated amount of dihydrogen in the presence of Lindlar’s catalyst give alkynes.

Preparation of Alkene From Alkynes

Preparation of Alkene from Haloalkanes (dehydrohalogenation)

  • On heating with alcoholic potash one molecule of halogen acid is eliminated to form alkenes.
  • The above process is called dehydrohalogenation

Preparation of Alkene from Haloalkanes (dehydrohalogenation)

  • For halogens the rate of reaction is:

Iodine > Bromine > Chlorine

  • For alkyl groups the rate of reaction is:

tert > secondary > primary

Preparation of Alkene from Dihaloalkanes (dehalogenation)

  • Dihalides in which two halogen atoms are attached to two adjacent carbon atoms are known as vicinal dihalides.
  • Vicinal dihalides goes dehalogenation for the formation of alkenes.

Preparation of Alkene from Dihaloalkanes (dehalogenation)

Preparation of Alkene from Alcohols (dehydration)

  • On heating alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid.
  • Above process is known as acidic dehydration of alcohols.

Preparation of Alkene from Alcohols (dehydration)

Nomenclature of Alkenes

In IUPAC system

  • The name of the hydrocarbon is based on the parent alkene having the longest carbon chain of which double bond is apart.
  • The suffix ‘ene’ replaces ‘ane’ of alkanes.

Nomenclature of Alkenes

Isomerism

Alkenes show both structural isomerism and geometrical isomerism

Structural isomerism

  • Ehtene and propene have no structural isomers, but there are three structure of butenes.

Structural isomerism

  • Of these, two are straight chain structure with the difference being in the position of double bond in the molecules.
  • These are position isomers and third structure is a branched-chain isomer.

Geometrical Isomerism

  • It is known that a carbon-carbon double bond is made up of one σ bond and one π-bond.
  • The π-bond presents free rotation about the double bond.
    This presentation of rotation about the carbon-carbon double bond gives rise to the phenomenon of geometrical isomerism.
  • An alkene having a formula RCH=CHR can have two stereoisomers, depending upon whether the two alkyl groups are on the same or opposite sides of the double bond.
  • If they are on the same side, then it is called cis-isomer. If they are on opposite sides, then it is called trans-isomer.
  • Due to different arrangement of atoms or groups in space, these isomers differ in their properties like melting point, boiling point, dipole moment, solubility, etc.

Geometrical Isomerism

Physical properties of alkenes

  • Physical state: The first three members are gases, the next fourteen are liquids and the higher ones are solids.
  • Boiling Points: The boiling points of alkenes increases with the increase in molecular mass.
  • Solubility: Alkenes are soluble in non-polar solvents and are insoluble in polar solvents.

Chemical reaction of alkenes

Chemical reaction of alkenes

Alkenes are reactive due to the presence of double bonds. Due to presence of π bonds alkenes give electrophilic addition reaction. Alkenes also give free radical addition reaction.

Addition reaction:

Alkene show electrophilic addition reaction.

Addition of hydrogen (Catalytic hydrogenation)

Addition of hydrogen (Catalytic hydrogenation)

Addition of halogens (Cl2 or Br2)

Addition of halogens (Cl2 or Br2)

Addition of bromine is used as a test for detecting the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond or triple bond.

Addition of hydrogen halides

Addition of hydrogen halides

The order of reactivity among hydrogen halides is

The order of reactivity among hydrogen halides is

In case of unsymmetrical alkenes addition occurs according to Markonikov’s rule. This reaction takes place through an ionic mechanism. Electrophilic addition to a carbon–carbon double bond involves the formation of an intermediate, i.e. more stable carbocation.

Deviation from Markownikov’s rule:

Negative paet of the addendum (adding molecule) gets attached to that carbon atom which possesses lesser number of hydrogen atoms. e.g.,

Deviation from Markownikov’s rule

Peroxide effect or Kharasch (Anti Markownikoff’s addition):

In 1933 Kharasch and Mayo observed that when HBr is added to an unsymmetrical double bond in the presence of organic peroxide, the reaction take places opposite to the Markovnikov rule.

Peroxide effect or Kharasch (Anti Markownikoff’s addition):

Peroxide effect or Kharasch (Anti Markownikoff’s addition):

Addition of Sulphuric acid:

Addition of Sulphuric acid

Addition of water (Hydration):

Acid catalyzed addition of water.

Addition of water (Hydration)

Oxidation of Alkenes

Alkenes decolourise cold dilute aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (Baeyer’s reagent). It is used as a test for unsaturation.

Oxidation of Alkenes

Acidic KMnO4 or acidic K2Cr2O7 oxidise alkenes to ketones and/or acids depending upon the nature of alkene and the experimental conditions.

Oxidation of Alkenes

Ozonolysis of Alkenes

Alkenes involves the addition of ozone molecule to alkene to form ozonide, and then cleavage of the ozonide by Zn-H2O to smaller molecules

Ozonolysis of Alkenes

Polymerisation

  • Polythene is obtained by the combination of large number of ethene molecules at high temperature, high pressure and in the presence of a catalyst. The large molecules thus obtained are called polymers. This reaction is known as polymerisation.
  • The simple compounds from which polymers are made are called monomers.

Polymerisation

 

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