Home Chemistry Hydrocarbons


Classification of Hydrocarbons. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes– Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance, aromaticity ; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

These hydrocarbons are also known as ‘arenes’. Since most of them possess pleasant odour (Greek; aroma meaning pleasant smelling), the class of compounds...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes


Unsaturated hydrocarbon which have triple bond. General molecular formular CnH2n-2 sp hybridization Shown chain, positional and functional isomerism Nomenclature of alkynes IUPAC System: The IUPAC...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes


Alkenes are characterized by the presence of a double bond between two carbon atoms. Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n. C-C bond hybridization...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes


General formula: CnH2n+2 Each carbon atom of alkane is sp3 hybridized and its shape is tetrahedral. The simplest member of alkane series is...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon are the organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only, e.g., alkane, alkene and alkynes. Classification of Hydrocarbons