Home Chemistry Structure of Atom

Structure of Atom

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Filling of Orbitals in Atom

Filling of Orbitals in Atom The filling of electrons into the orbitals of different atoms takes place according to the aufbau principle which is based...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Shapes of atomic orbitals

The shape of s-orbitals: They are the non-directional and spherically symmetric i.e. probability of finding the electron at a given distance is equal in...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Quantum numbers

Quantum numbers There are a set of four quantum numbers which specify the energy, size, shape and orientation of an orbital. To specify an orbital...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Schrodinger’s equation

Classical mechanics: is based on Newton’s laws of motion. It successfully describes the motion of macroscopic particles but fails in the case of microscopic...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Dual behaviour of matter & Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Dual behaviour of matter (de Broglie Equation) de Broglie proposed that matter should also exhibit dual behaviour i.e. both particle and wave like properties. where p...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Bohr’s Model for Hydrogen Atom

Bohr’s Model for Hydrogen Atom Note: This model is applicable to H-atom or H-like species like He+, Li2+, Be3+. Postulates: An atom consists of a small,...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Atomic Number and Mass Number, Isotopes and Isobars

Atomic Number and Mass Number Atomic Number (Z): The number of protons present in the nucleus is equal to the atomic number (Moseley 1913). Atomic Number (Z)=...
11th Chemistry NCERT notes

Atom and Atomic Models

Atom Atom is the smallest indivisible particle of the matter. Atom is made of electron, proton and neutrons. Electron was discovered using cathode ray discharge tube...